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Analysis of measures taken by Japanese enterprises to deal with ROHS, WEEE and other directives

the EU WEEE Directive (EU directive 2002/96/ec) and RoHS Directive (EU directive 2002/95/ec) have become official laws within the EU since February 13, 2003. According to the WEEE Directive, since August 13, 2005, manufacturers of electronic and electrical equipment circulating in the EU market must pay the recovery cost of their own scrapped products. According to the RoHS directive, since July 1st, 2006, all electronic and electrical equipment sold in the EU market must be prohibited from using heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium, as well as flame retardants such as brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)

After the promulgation of the directive, Japan, with industry associations, research institutions and enterprises as the main organizations, held a learning conference on the relevant directives on the one hand, and invited relevant EU officials to explain the formulation ideas and setting contents of the directive; On the other hand, relying on the advantages of perfect industrial data and enterprise information construction in Japan, we actively build an environmental management system, and decompose the inspection of RoHS and WEEE instruction matching into each specific process, which is implemented as a subsystem of the environmental management system. At the same time, we should promote the development and research of lead-free alternative technology and new flame retardants

at the management level, the measures taken by Japanese enterprises to deal with EU environmental directives can be divided into four levels: "system and mechanism construction", "directive analysis and countermeasure refinement", "data integration and process management", "management system and testing technology"

system and mechanism construction

jointly respond to the agreement mechanism

in the face of the new challenges of environmental directives, Japanese enterprises either rely on industry associations or form new enterprise consortiums to establish and explore the response mechanism with the strength of groups

a typical representative is the "joint agreement on Green investigation" (jgpssi). Jgpssi is established by electrical and electronic enterprises, and is committed to the environmental management data sharing of industrial enterprises through unified investigation of restricted substances, discussion of standardization of management methods, formulation of unified measures and other activities. On this basis, formulate and promote a systematic overall implementation plan to deal with environmental directives such as RoHS and WEEE. The plan includes: completing the compilation of chemical substances catalogue, unifying the chemical substances management standards of various enterprises, and setting 24 Categories of key managed chemical substances. Manage and investigate the whole process of raw materials, components and products that may contain these substances, and record the quantity of 24 types of substances in each stage, so as to further build an environmental management information system

internal response mechanism of enterprises

in order to meet the new requirements of environmental directives, all enterprises try to establish their own response mechanism. Among them, the typical feature is Sony's "Green Partner Program": Aiming at about 4000 cooperative enterprises around the world, Sony has established a chemical determination database and implemented non use certification for all prohibited chemicals. Strengthen the management of the entry, production and output of materials, and focus on the management of the easy mixing of chemical substances, so as to ensure that products meet the requirements of environmental directives

Figure 1 Sony's "Green Partner Program" management mechanism

in addition, the equally representative management mechanisms include: the three-level management mechanism (Mitsubishi resin) for prohibiting, reducing and managing more than 354 chemical substances, the 180 chemical substance prohibition mechanism (TDK), the industry green data integration and unified management mechanism (Hitachi), etc

the system of the government and industry management departments promotes

in addition to the EU environmental directives, Japanese enterprises are also subject to the management and restrictions of the environmental laws formulated by the Japanese government. The implementation of these domestic environmental directives not only did not weaken the international competitiveness of enterprises, but also further promoted enterprises to adapt to the changes of the international market faster and better due to the perfect institutional foundation, mature management system and complete relevant data, and enhanced the competitiveness of enterprises. The PRTR (chemical substance emission mobile registration and reporting system) implemented by the Japanese government pays great attention to the source management, emission limitation and data statistics of harmful chemical substances, and requires enterprises engaged in the production, sale and use of chemical substances to submit a "chemical substance safety data report" every year, which objectively lays a solid foundation for Japanese enterprises to adapt to the new EU environmental directives

the relevant laws formulated by the Japanese government include: PRTR law, chemical review regulation law, household appliance recycling law (harl)

carry out business cooperation with European units

through cooperation with European units, we can better respond to the requirements of EU directives. This cooperation is not limited to enterprises and enterprises, but also includes cooperation with European local self-governing groups, non-governmental organizations and recycling networks

at present, the typical enterprises with good cooperation are NEC, Sony, Panasonic, sharp, etc

directive analysis and countermeasure refinement

in the process of analyzing and studying EU environmental directives, enterprise consortia and industry associations have played a huge role. Through the efforts of these institutions, Translate the obscure legal provisions into "the implementation manual and operation process that our customers inform our enterprises to deal with, so that Japanese enterprises can quickly adjust the production process route and management mode according to the requirements of environmental directives. Typical examples include the evaluation manual of household electrical appliances and the product packaging management manual compiled by the Japan household electrical appliances association.

Evaluation Manual of household electrical appliances

The evaluation manual of household electrical appliances (Third Edition) (September, 2004) faces the whole field of household electrical appliances production. According to the respective positions of different enterprises in the industrial chain, enterprises are divided into "resource production", "material manufacturing", "component manufacturing", "product manufacturing", "circulation enterprise", "repair enterprise", "recycling and collection", "transportation", "separation and sorting", "crushing and sorting" "Final treatment" and "renewable resource treatment" are different types. For these different types of enterprises, combined with the requirements of Japan's household appliance recycling law (harl) and the EU WEEE and RoHS directives, a comprehensive environmental assessment system containing 14 categories, 46 categories and 79 sub categories of assessment indicators has been developed. Based on the indicators in this evaluation system, the products are quantitatively evaluated and scored, and the overall evaluation results of the products are comprehensively calculated according to the different requirements of individual evaluation and comprehensive evaluation

the individual evaluation is to evaluate one or more of the 46 medium-sized evaluation projects, while the overall evaluation is to evaluate all the projects contained in all 14 categories. In this way, the Japanese Household Appliance Association gradually refined the macro and general environmental instructions into each stage of the process according to the household appliance production process, so as to have practical operability and play a practical guiding role in enterprise production

product packaging management manual

for the relevant packaging of household appliances, such as electrical appliances outer packing, bottom tray, cushioning materials, support bags, connector bags, fixtures, PP belts, protective paper, protective film, wood, strapping belts, plastic boxes, table paper, polymer bags, accessory bags, etc., carry out a detailed classification, define the materials used in different packaging, and formulate clear material use standards. At the same time, it is stipulated that different packages must use relevant marks, so that the operators of the recycling process clearly know the raw materials of the recycled items, so as to improve the sorting effect, ensure a high recycling and reuse rate, and provide a standard guarantee for products to adapt to WEEE and harl

Figure 2 example of individual evaluation results of environmental assessment of household electrical appliances

process management and data integration

according to the requirements of environmental directives, Japan will classify and refine the production and recycling processes of products involved and formulate relevant specifications. The country collates the product production data within the enterprise, and combines LCA (life cycle assessment) analysis to build a management information system within the enterprise and among affiliated enterprises to implement environmental management for the product production process

typical examples include: the recycling process of mechanical and electrical products formulated by eco recycle company, the summary report of waste plastic recycling technology compiled by Japan household electrical appliances association, and the environmental management system developed by relevant industries and enterprises

recycling process of mechanical and electrical products

Tokyo eco recycle (Co., Ltd.) has formulated the recycling process of mechanical and electrical products as shown in Figure 3. Through manual sorting of the recycled mechanical and electrical products, according to the five categories of iron metal materials, scrap metal materials, plastic materials, other materials, oil recycling, etc., the recycled items are divided into 11 kinds of recycling classification and processing methods, so as to improve the recycling effect and reuse rate

Figure 3 Tokyo eco recycle's recycling process of mechanical and electrical products

investigation and Research on technologies related to waste plastic treatment

in response to the requirements of the European Union WEEE Directive and Japan's harl decree, the Japan household electrical appliances association sorted out the new technologies and processes developed by relevant household electrical appliance enterprises in the field of waste plastic recycling, and compiled the "investigation and Research Report on technologies related to waste plastic treatment". The report summarizes and explains the new technologies in seven fields, including the disassembly technology of recycled household appliances, the identification technology of recycled plastic materials, the separation technology of mixed plastics, plastic regeneration technology, solid fuel technology, polyurethane treatment technology, and chemical recovery technology. Through industry promotion, the recycling proportion of household appliances will be increased, and the waste of resources and environmental impact caused by waste will be reduced

disassembly technology of recycled household appliances: water tank unit decomposition technology and process, mechanical operation decomposition technology and process

material discrimination technology: medium infrared spectroscopic material discrimination technology (Sony), FT-IR spectroscopic material discrimination technology (Panasonic)

plastic sorting technology: electrostatic separation technology (Mitsubishi), foreign matter removal technology (Mitsubishi), specific gravity sorting technology (green recycling), water flow PP sorting technology (Panasonic)

plastic recycling technology: waste plastic material recycling system technology (Hitachi), closed-loop material recycling system and Technology (sharp), flame retardant removal technology (Panasonic)

solid fuel technology: RPF Technology (Sanyo)

Polyurethane Treatment Technology: Freon recycling technology, polyurethane volume reduction technology (West Japan household appliance recycling), thermal insulation material recycling technology (Toshiba)

chemical recovery technology: blast furnace chemical feedstock method (Nippon Steel)

industry and enterprise environmental management system

Japanese enterprises generally attach importance to the data collection and management of the Department with a long operation time. Combined with LCA research, it has laid a good foundation for the construction of industry and enterprise environmental management system. In order to cope with ROHS, WEEE and other environmental directives, and better promote the life cycle design of products, Japan Industrial Environmental Management Association (jemai) launched jemai-lca system. At the same time, enterprises have successively launched their own environmental management systems, among which the typical LCA systems are easylca (Toshiba), ecoassist (Hitachi), ecofusion (NEC), and the typical life cycle design systems are Boothroyd DFMA (Hitachi)

in addition, many information service companies have also launched their own environmental management systems

management system and testing technology

with the implementation and development of RoHS, Japan has formed a complete system management model

in this case, the whole product

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